How reliable is the recovery theorem of Ross (2015)? We explore this question in the context of options on the 30-year Treasury bond futures, allowing us to deduce restrictions that link the physical and risk-neutral return distributions. Our empirical results undermine the implications of the recovery theorem. First, we reject an implicit assumption of the recovery theorem that the martingale component of the stochastic discount factor is identical to unity. Second, we consider the restrictions between the physical and risk-neutral return moments when the recovery theorem holds, and reject them in both forecasting regressions and generalized method of moment estimations
We show that a model featuring an average commodity factor, a carry factor, and a momentum factor is capable of describing the cross-sectional variation of commodity returns. More parsimonious one- and two-factor models that feature only the average and/or carry factors are rejected. To provide an economic interpretation, we show that innovations in global equity volatility can price portfolios formed on carry, while innovations in a commodity-based measure of speculative activity can price portfolios formed on momentum. Finally, we characterize the relation between the factors and the investment opportunity set.
We propose a model of volatility tail behavior, in which the pricing measure dominates the physical measure in both tails of the volatility distribution and, hence, the derived pricing kernel exhibits an increasing and decreasing region in the volatility dimension. The model features investors who have heterogeneity in beliefs about volatility outcomes, and maximize their utility by choosing volatility-contingent cash flows. Our empirical examination appears to suggest that the model is better suited to mimic the data counterparts in the left tail of the volatility distribution, both qualitatively and quantitatively.
In this paper, we develop lower bounds on the variance of the permanent component and the transitory component, and on the variance of the ratio of the permanent to the transitory components of SDFs. Exactly solved eigenfunction problems are then used to study the empirical attributes of asset pricing models that incorporate long-run risk, external habit persistence, and rare disasters. Specific quantitative implications are developed for the variance of the permanent and the transitory components, the return behavior of the long-term bond, and the comovement between the transitory and the permanent components of SDFs.
The goal of this paper is to show that the growth rate of the Baltic Dry Index (BDI) has predictive ability for a range of stock markets, which is demonstrated through in-sample tests and out-of-sample statistics.The documented stock return predictability is also of economic significance, as seen by examining the certainty equivalent returns and Sharpe ratios of portfolio strategies that exploit the BDI growth rate. In addition, the BDI growth rate predicts the returns of commodity indexes, and we find some evidence for joint predictability of stock and commodity returns in a system of predictive regressions. Finally, the BDI growth rate predicts the growth in global economic activity, establishing further BDI’s role in revealing a link between the real and financial sectors.